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The device and its basic principle

          A thermopump is a device, which does not produce heat, but transfers it from bodies with lower temperature to bodies with with higher temperature when inserting a specific amount of energy. From a thermodynamic point of view, thermopumps are identical with refrigerators, with the difference being that the drawn heat is used, as opposed to it being discarded. Every thermopump consists of the following main elements:     
    
  • 1.Compressor
  • 2.Condenser
  • 3.Regulating valve
  • 4.Evaporator
  • 5.Connecting copper pipes
  • 6.Refrigerator agent (freon), which transfer heat through a change in its agregate state.
  •     
              The compressor, condenser, regulating valve and evaporator are connected by copper pipes (hermetically), which hold the circulating freon, along with a small quantity of compressor oil. The working process of a thermopump is the following: Low-pressure gas freon (3 - 5 atmospheres) with temperature 7 - 12 degrees Celsius enters the compressor from the evaporator. The compressor sucks the gas and heats it up to 15 - 25 atmospheres and temperature 70 - 90 degrees Celsius, following which the freon enters the condenser. Thanks to the intensive blowing, the freon gives away heat and the air passing through the condenser increases temperature. At the condenser's exit, the freon is already liquified and with temperature 10 - 20 degrees Celsius more than the air. The warm freon from the condenser enters the regulating valve (in air-conditioners that is a capillary - a thin copper spiral wounded pipe), where the temperature and pressure are lower and the freon begins to evaporate. After the regulating valve the freon enters the evaporator and continues to turn into vapour until its full transformation back to its gas state and in the process consumes heat. The gas freon with low temperature then enters the compressor and the cycle is repeated. This principle lies in the working process of every air-conditioner, thermopump, refrigerator and it is known as the "reverse Carnot cycle".     



    Working principle in heating regime.

    The four-way valve is switchen on in heating regime and the thermopump executes the following process:
    The heated and evaporated freon from the heat-exchanger (evaporator) enters the compressor in its gas state with pressure of 3 - 5 atmospheres. Its pressure increases up to 20 - 25 atmospheres and its temperature reaches 70 - 90 degrees Celsius (temperature of overheated vapour). It passes through the heat-exchanger for domestic hot water, giving away part of its temperature, and continues to the condenser. Thereafter it gives away its temperature to the room's cooled air, which increases in temperature, while the freon liquifies. After that it passes through the regulating valve and enters the heat-exchanger (evaporator), where it evaporates and takes away heat from the water. It repeats the same cycle again.
    Thermopump in heating regime
    Thermopump in heating regime

    Working principle in cooling regime.

    The four-way valve is switched on in cooling regime and the thermopump executes the following process:
    The evaporated freon in its gas state, with pressure of 3 - 5 atmospheres, enters the compressor after having consumed the temperature of the surrounding air. Its pressure increases up to 20 - 25 atmospheres and its temperature reaches 70 - 90 degrees Celsius (temperature of overheated vapour). It passes through the heat-exchanger for domestic hot water, giving away part of its temperature, and continues to the heat-exchanger (condenser). Thereafter, it gives away its temperature to the water, which increases in temperature, while the freon liquifies. After that it passes through the regulating valve and enters the heat-exhanger (evaporator), where it evaporates and takes away heat from the air, cooling it off. It repeats the same cycle again.
    Thermopump in cooling regime
    Thermopump in cooling regime


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